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Faculty Detail    
Name SCOTT W BALLINGER
 
Campus Address BMR2 530 Zip 2180
Phone 205-934-4621
E-mail sballing@uab.edu
Other websites
     


Faculty Appointment(s)
Appointment Type Department Division Rank
Primary  Pathology   Molecular & Cellular Pathology Professor
Center  Center for Aging  COMPREHENSIVE CTR FOR HEALTHY AGING Professor
Center  Comprehensive Cancer Center  Comprehensive Cancer Center Professor
Center  Medicine  Comprehensive Diabetes Ctr Professor
Center  General Clinical Research Center  Ctr for Clinical & Translational Sci Professor
Center  Medicine  Ctr Cardiovasc Bio Professor

Graduate Biomedical Sciences Affiliations
Cancer Biology 
Cell, Molecular, & Developmental Biology 
Hughes Med-Grad Fellowship Program 
Integrative Biomedical Sciences 
Medical Scientist Training Program 
Molecular and Cellular Pathology Program 
Pathobiology and Molecular Medicine 

Biographical Sketch 
Dr. Ballinger received his BS and MS degrees from Texas A&M University and his PhD degree in biochemistry from Emory University. He completed postdoctoral training at the University of Vermont's Genetics and Toxicology Laboratory, initially as an environmental pathology fellow and later as a Department of Energy Alexander Hollaender Distinguished Fellow.

Society Memberships
Organization Name Position Held Org Link
American Heart Association     
Society for Free Radical Biology and Medicine     

Research/Clinical Interest
Title
Environmental cardiology, free radical biology, mitochondrial function
Description
There is growing evidence that many forms of disease can be initiated by free radical mediated events or energetic deficits that can be related to cellular stress and damage. A cellular source and target of free radical production and damage is the mitochondrion. Because mitochondria are essential for multiple cell functions, including energy production, cell signaling, cell growth, proliferation, and programmed cell death, we hypothesize that free radicals cause mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in cells important in various disease processes, and furthermore, that disease risk factors increase mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Specifically, we hypothesize that fetal and/or childhood exposure to cardiovascular disease risk factors increases the risk of adult disease development by causing mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Finally, we also hypothesize that the mitochondrion plays a major role in influencing individual disease susceptibility by mitochondrial nuclear interaction processes, and that environmentally influenced selection events for mitochondrial function that conveyed increased reproductive and survival success during the global establishment of human populations during prehistoric times, today, influence human disease susceptibility.

Selected Publications 
Publication PUBMEDID
Dunham-Snary, K.J., Ballinger, S.W. Mitochondrial genetics and obesity: evolutionary adaptation and contemporary disease susceptibility. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Sep 25;65C:1229-1237.  24075923 
Fetterman, J., Zelickson, B., Johnson, L., Moellering, D.R., Westbrook, D.G., Pompilius, M., Sammy, M.J., Salman, E.D., Johnson, M., Dunham-Snary, K.J., Cao, X., Bradley, W.E., Zhang, J., Wei, C.C., Chacko, B., Schurr, T.G., Kesterson, R.A., Dell’Italia, L.J., Darley-Usmar, V.M., Welch, D.R., Ballinger, S.W. Mitochondrial genetic background modulates bioenergetics and susceptibility to acute cardiac volume overload. Biochemical Journal – Metabolism. 2013 Aug 8.  23924350 
Fetterman, J., Pompilius, M., Westbrook, D.G., Uyeminami, D., Brown, J., Pinkerton, K.E., Ballinger, S.W. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE -/- mice. PLoS ONE, June 25 2013.  23825571 
Chacko, B.K., Kramer, P.A., Ravi, S., Johnson, M.S., Hardy, R.W., Ballinger, S.W., Darley-Usmar, V.M. Methods for defining distinct bioenergetic profiles in platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils and the oxidative burst from human blood. Laboratory Investigation. 2013 Jun;93(6):690-700. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2013.53. Epub 2013 Mar 25.  23528848 
Hill, B.G., Benavides, G.A., Lancaster, J.R., Ballinger, S.W., Dell’Italia, L.J., Zhang, J., Darley-Usmar, V.M. Integration of cellular bioenergetics with mitochondrial quality control and autophagy. Biol. Chem. 393: 1485 -1512, 2012.   23092819 
Gladden JD, Ulasova E, Chen Y, Ahed M, Zellickson B, Baman M, Ballinger S.W., Darley-Usmar V, Dell’Italia LJ. Novel insights into interactions between mitochondria and xanthine oxidase in acute cardiac volume overload. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2011 Dec 1;51(11):1975-84. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.08.022. Epub 2011 Aug 30.  21925594 
Gladden JD, Ulasova E, Chen Y, Ahed M, Zellickson B, Baman M, Ballinger S.W., Darley-Usmar V, Dell’Italia LJ. Left ventricular and bioenergetic dysfunction in acute volume overload is mediated by stretch-induced cardiomyocyte xanthine oxidase activation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1;51(11)1975-84 2011.
 
21925594 
Kryzwanski, D.M., Moellering, D., Fetterman, J.L, Dunham-Snary, K.J., Sammy, M.J., Ballinger, S.W. The Mitochondrial Genetic Paradigm for Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Cellular Function: A Complementary Concept to Mendelian Genetics. Laboratory Investigation 91 (8): 1122-1135. 2011.  21647091 
Zhai, L., Ballinger, S.W., Messina, J.L. Potential role of reactive oxygen species in injury-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Molecular Endocrinology 25 (3): 492-502, 2011.  21239612 
Harrison, C.M., Pompilius, M., Pinkerton, K.E., Ballinger, S.W. Mitochondrial oxidative stress influences atherogenic risk and cytokine induced oxidant production. Environmental Health Perspectives 119 (5): 676-681, 2011.  21169125 
Ulasova, E., Gladden, J.D., Zheng, J., Chen, Y., Pat, B., Bradley, W., Powell, P., Zhmijewski, J., Zelickson, B., Ballinger, S.W., Darley-Usmar, V., Dell’Italia, L.J. Extracellular matrix loss in acute volume overload causes structural alterations and dysfunction in cardiomyocyte subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 50: 147-156, 2011.  21059354 
Westbrook, D.G., Anderson, P, Pinkerton, K.E., Ballinger, S.W. Perinatal tobacco smoke exposure significantly increases vascular oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in non-human primates. Cardiovascular Toxicology 10: 216 – 226 2010.   20668962 
Chuang G.C., Yang Z., Westbrook D.G., Pompilius M., Ballinger C.A., White C.R., Krzywanski D.M., Postlethwait E.M., Ballinger S.W. Pulmonary ozone exposure induces vascular dysfunction, mitochondrial damage and atherogenesis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 297: L209-216 2009.  19395667 
Bailey, S.M., Mantena, S.K., Cakir, Y., Chhieng, D., Pinkerton, K.E., Ballinger, S.W. Ethanol and tobacco smoke increase hepatic steatosis and hypoxia in the hypercholesterolemic apoE-/-mouse: Implications for a "multi-hit" hypothesis of fatty liver disease. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 46: 928-938 (2009)  19280709 
Cakir Y, Yang Z, Knight CA, Pompilius M, Westbrook D, Bailey SM, Pinkerton KE, Ballinger SW. Effect of alcohol and tobacco smoke on mtDNA damage and atherogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Nov 1;43(9):1279-88. Epub 2007 Jul 19.   17893041 
Yang Z, Harrison CM, Chuang GC, Ballinger SW. The role of tobacco smoke induced mitochondrial damage in vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Mutat Res. 2007 Aug 1;621(1-2):61-74. Epub 2007 Mar 1. Review.   17428506 
Gutierrez J, Ballinger SW, Darley-Usmar VM, Landar A., Free radicals, mitochondria, and oxidized lipids: the emerging role in signal transduction in vascular cells. Circ Res. 2006 Oct 27;99(9):924-32  17068300 
Ballinger, S.W. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 May 15;38(10):1278-95. Review.  
15855047 
Yang, Z., Knight, C.A., Mamerow, M.M., Vickers, K., Penn, A., Postlethwait, E.M., Ballinger, S.W. Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Promotes Adult Atherogenesis and Mitochondrial Damage in apolipoprotein E -/- Mice fed a Chow Diet. Circulation 110: 3715-3720 2004  15569831 
Ballinger, S.W., Patterson, C., Knight-Lozano, C.A., Burow, D.L., Conklin, C.A., Hu, Z-Y, Reuf, J., Horaist, C., Lebovitz, R., Hunter, G., McIntyre, K., Runge, M.S. Mitochondrial Integrity and Function in Atherogenesis. Circulation 106: 544-549 2002.  12147534 
Knight-Lozano, C.A., Young, C.G., Burrow, D.L., Hu, Z-Y, Uyeminami, D., Pinkerton, K.E., Ischiropoulos, H., Wallace, D.C., and Ballinger, S.W. Cigarette smoke mediates mitochondrial damage in cardiovascular tissues from normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic mice. Circulation 105: 849-854 2002  11854126 
Ballinger, S.W., Patterson, C., Yan, C-N, Doan, R., Burow, D.L., Young, C.G., Yakes, F.M., Van Houten, B., Ballinger, C.A., Freeman, B.A., Runge, M.S. Hydrogen Peroxide and Peroxynitrite-Induced Mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Circulation Research 86: 960-966; 2000.   10807868 

Keywords
atherosclerosis, environmental cardiology, mitochondria, oxidative stress, evolutionary medicine